### Abstract

We propose a new computational problem called the twin Diffie-Hellman problem. This problem is closely related to the usual (computational) Diffie-Hellman problem and can be used in many of the same cryptographic constructions that are based on the Diffie-Hellman problem. Moreover, the twin Diffie-Hellman problem is at least as hard as the ordinary Diffie-Hellman problem. However, we are able to show that the twin Diffie-Hellman problem remains hard, even in the presence of a decision oracle that recognizes solutions to the problem-this is a feature not enjoyed by the Diffie-Hellman problem, in general. Specifically, we show how to build a certain "trapdoor test" that allows us to effectively answer decision oracle queries for the twin Diffie-Hellman problem without knowing any of the corresponding discrete logarithms. Our new techniques have many applications. As one such application, we present a new variant of ElGamal encryption with very short ciphertexts, and with a very simple and tight security proof, in the random oracle model, under the assumption that the ordinary Diffie-Hellman problem is hard. We present several other applications as well, including a new variant of Diffie and Hellman's non-interactive key exchange protocol; a new variant of Cramer-Shoup encryption, with a very simple proof in the standard model; a new variant of Boneh-Franklin identity-based encryption, with very short ciphertexts; a more robust version of a password-authenticated key exchange protocol of Abdalla and Pointcheval.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 470-504 |

Number of pages | 35 |

Journal | Journal of Cryptology |

Volume | 22 |

Issue number | 4 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Oct 2009 |

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Software
- Computer Science Applications
- Applied Mathematics

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## Cite this

*Journal of Cryptology*,

*22*(4), 470-504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00145-009-9041-6