Thermal residual stresses in bilayered, trilayered and graded dental ceramics

Douglas Fabris, Júlio C.M. Souza, Filipe S. Silva, Márcio Fredel, Joana Mesquita-Guimarães, Yu Zhang, Bruno Henriques

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Layered ceramic systems are usually hit by residual thermal stresses created during cooling from high processing temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine the thermal residual stresses at different ceramic multi-layered systems and evaluate their influence on the bending stress distribution. Finite elements method was used to evaluate the residual stresses in zirconia-porcelain and alumina-porcelain multi-layered discs and to simulate the ‘piston-on-ring’ test. Temperature-dependent material properties were used. Three different multi-layered designs were simulated: a conventional bilayered design; a trilayered design, with an intermediate composite layer with constant composition; and a graded design, with an intermediate layer with gradation of properties. Parameters such as the interlayer thickness and composition profiles were varied in the study. Alumina-porcelain discs present smaller residual stress than the zirconia-porcelain discs, regardless of the type of design. The homogeneous interlayer can yield a reduction of ~40% in thermal stress relative to bilayered systems. Thinner interlayers favoured the formation of lower thermal stresses. The graded discs showed the lowest thermal stresses for a gradation profile given by power law function with p=2. The bending stresses were significantly affected by the thermal stresses in the discs. The risk of failure for all-ceramic dental restorative systems can be significantly reduced by using trilayered systems (homogenous or graded interlayer) with the proper design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3670-3678
Number of pages9
JournalCeramics International
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017


  • Alumina
  • Feldspar-based porcelain
  • Functionally graded ceramic
  • Multilayer
  • Thermal residual stresses
  • Zirconia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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