Thermo-Electrical state and demand response potential estimation for power systems with building thermostats

Shaojian Song, Wentao Zhang, Yuzhang Lin, Cheng Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Heating and cooling are major resources of Demand Response (DR) to enhance the flexibility and reliability of power grids. In order to maximize their potential, it is necessary to reliably keep track of their operating states in real-time operation. This paper presents a comprehensive state estimation framework for power systems with building thermostats, with a tractable thermodynamic building model and integration of multi-source information from weather, power grid, building systems. Based on the thermodynamic model and state of the buildings, the building temperature trajectories in the next few hours can be accurately predicted, such that the DR potential of the building can be precisely estimated. To jointly estimate the state variables of power grids and state variables in building thermostats with different time scales of dynamics, a holistic estimation framework is developed based on the partial equivalence between the Weighted Least Squares (WLS) estimation problem and the correction stage of the Iterative Extended-Kalman Filter (IEKF). Simulation results show that the proposed framework can accurately track the thermo-electrical states of the system and estimate the DR potential in the presence of measurement noise and bad data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108588
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Building energy systems
  • Demand response
  • Flexible load
  • Heating and cooling
  • Situational awareness
  • State estimation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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