Thin Loewner Carpets and Their Quasisymmetric Embeddings in S2

Jeff Cheeger, Sylvester Eriksson-Bique

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A carpet is a metric space that is homeomorphic to the standard Sierpiński carpet in (Formula presented.), or equivalently, in S2. A carpet is called thin if its Hausdorff dimension is (Formula presented.). A metric space is called Q-Loewner if its Q-dimensional Hausdorff measure is Q-Ahlfors regular and if it satisfies a (Formula presented.) -Poincaré inequality. As we will show, Q-Loewner planar metric spaces are always carpets, and admit quasisymmetric embeddings into the plane. In this paper, for every pair (Formula presented.), with (Formula presented.), we construct infinitely many pairwise quasisymmetrically distinct Q-Loewner carpets X that admit explicit snowflake embeddings, (Formula presented.), for which the image f(X) admits an explicit description and is (Formula presented.) -Ahlfors regular. In particular, these f are quasisymmetric embeddings. By a result of Tyson, the Hausdorff dimension of a Loewner space cannot be lowered by a quasisymmetric homeomorphism. By definition, this means that the carpets X and f(X) realize their conformal dimension. Each of images f(X) can be further uniformized via post composition with a quasisymmetric homeomorphism of S2, so as to yield a circle carpet and also a square carpet. Our Loewner carpets X are constructed via what we call an admissible quotiented inverse system. This mechanism extends the inverse limit construction for PI spaces given in [25], which, however, does not yield carpets. Loewner spaces are a particular subclass of PI spaces. They have strong rigidity properties that do not hold for PI spaces in general. In many cases the construction of the carpets and their snowflake embeddings, f, can also be described in terms of substitution rules. The statement above concerning (Formula presented.) is already a consequence of these examples. The images of these snowflake embeddings can be de-snowflaked using a deformation by a strong (Formula presented.) weight, which multiplies the metric infinitesimally by a conformal factor of the form (Formula presented.). Consequently, our examples also yield new examples of strong (Formula presented.) -weights for which the associated metrics admit no bi-Lipschitz embeddings into Banach spaces with the Radon-Nikodym property such as (Formula presented.), for (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-304
Number of pages80
JournalCommunications on Pure and Applied Mathematics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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