Three-Dimensionally-Printed Bioactive Ceramic Scaffolds: Construct Effects on Bone Regeneration

Christopher Fama, Gabriel J. Kaye, Roberto Flores, Christopher D. Lopez, Jonathan M. Bekisz, Andrea Torroni, Nick Tovar, Paulo G. Coelho, Lukasz Witek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background/Purpose:The utilization of three-dimensionally (3D)-printed bioceramic scaffolds composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate in conjunction with dipyridamole have shown to be effective in the osteogenesis of critical bone defects in both skeletally immature and mature animals. Furthermore, previous studies have proven the dura and pericranium's osteogenic capacity in the presence of 3D-printed scaffolds; however, the effect galea aponeurotica on osteogenesis in the presence of 3D scaffolds remains unclear.Method/Description:Critical-sized (11 mm) bilateral calvarial defects were created in 35-day old rabbits (n = 7). Two different 3D scaffolds were created, with one side of the calvaria being treated with a solid nonporous cap and the other with a fully porous cap. The solid cap feature was designed with the intention of preventing communication of the galea and the ossification site, while the porous cap permitted such communication. The rabbits were euthanized 8 weeks postoperatively. Calvaria were analyzed using microcomputed tomography, 3D reconstruction, and nondecalcified histologic sectioning in order assess differences in bone growth between the two types of scaffolding.Results:Scaffolds with the solid (nonporous) cap yielded greater percent bone volume (P = 0.012) as well as a greater percent potential bone (P = 0.001) compared with the scaffolds with a porous cap. The scaffolds with porous caps also exhibited a greater percent volume of soft tissue (P < 0.001) presence. There were no statistically significant differences detected in scaffold volume.Conclusion:A physical barrier preventing the interaction of the galea aponeurotica with the scaffold leads to significantly increased calvarial bone regeneration in comparison with the scaffolds allowing for this interaction. The galea's interaction also leads to more soft tissue growth hindering the in growth of bone in the porous-cap scaffolds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1177-1181
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2021


  • Animals
  • Bone Regeneration
  • Ceramics
  • Osteogenesis
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Rabbits
  • Tissue Scaffolds
  • X-Ray Microtomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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