Time to Reflect and Take Action on Health Disparities and Health Inequities

Susan Salmond, Caroline Dorsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The United States healthcare system underperforms in healthcare access, quality, and cost resulting in some of the poorest health outcomes among comparable countries, despite spending more of its gross national product on healthcare than any other country in the world. Within the United States, there are significant healthcare disparities based on race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education level, sexual orientation, gender identity, and geographic location. COVID-19 has illuminated the racial disparities in health outcomes. This article provides an overview of some of the main concepts related to health disparities generally, and in orthopaedics specifically. It provides an introduction to health equity terminology, issues of bias and equity, and potential interventions to achieve equity and social justice by addressing commonly asked questions and then introduces the reader to persistent orthopaedic health disparities specific to total hip and total knee arthroplasty.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)64-85
Number of pages22
JournalOrthopaedic Nursing
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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