Tissue-engineered alloplastic scaffolds for reconstruction of alveolar defects

Lukasz Witek, Ricardo Rodriguez Colon, Maxime M. Wang, Andrea Torroni, Simon Young, James Melville, Christopher D. Lopez, Roberto L. Flores, Bruce N. Cronstein, Paulo G. Coelho

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Approximately one-third of all congenital birth defects result in craniomaxillofacial congenital anomalies such as alveolar clefts. Other conditions may present themselves over the course of a patient’s life, such as edentulism. The most common surgical treatment to reconstruct these defects utilizes autogenous graft material, considered the “gold standard.” These grafts are challenging to shape, are of limited quantity, and cause donor site morbidity. Our group has demonstrated that 3D-printed bioactive ceramic scaffolds have the potential to generate vascularized bone within critical-sized defects (i.e., defects that without a scaffold will not be able to return to form and function) of the craniomaxillofacial and extremity skeleton. These custom-designed and 3D-printed lattice scaffolds have the capacity to act as a carrier for an osteogenic agent, dipyridamole (DIPY), with a well-established safety profile. A custom direct ink write (DIW) 3D printer in conjunction with volumetric imaging data has been leveraged by our team to create site-specific bioactive ceramic scaffolds for bony craniofacial defects, including those involving the alveolar ridge. In this chapter, we report on the tissue engineering principles, digital imaging software platform and 3D-printing technology that have culminated in a novel reconstructive strategy for the repair of alveolar bone defects in a skeletally immature transitional model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
Subtitle of host publicationVolume One
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9780081025635
ISBN (Print)9780081025642
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • 3D printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Alveolar cleft
  • Bioactive ceramic
  • In vivo
  • Lattice scaffolds
  • Regenerative pharmaceuticals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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