Titanium Carbide MXene Hole Contacts for CdTe Photovoltaics

Benjamin E. Sartor, Jason A. Röhr, Jason Lipton, Joel N. Duenow, Adam Goad, Juan Meng, Matthew O. Reese, André D. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


CdTe is a high-efficiency thin-film photovoltaic technology that has seen tremendous commercial success over the past decade. Yet despite the improvement of other device characteristics, the fabrication of an ohmic hole back contact layer has remained a challenge due to the high ionization potential of CdTe, which limits the external potential that can be feasibly reached even as other characteristics of the device improve. MXenes, a family of 2D materials with rapidly growing scientific and commercial interest, offer a promising route to forming low-cost, low-barrier contacts due to their demonstrated high work function, metallic conductivity, and facile solution processing from benign solvents. Here, it is shown that Ti3C2Tx MXene films processed from an aqueous colloidal dispersion can perform as a highly efficient hole contact material for CdTe solar cells, resulting in high power-conversion efficiencies. The role of the Schottky barrier formation in Ti3C2Tx-contacted CdTe devices is probed, and potential pathways for the future development of this potent combination of materials are elucidated. The modularity of the expansive MXene family of materials presents a promising strategy for developing next-generation hole contacts for CdTe solar cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2200366
JournalSolar RRL
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • MXenes
  • Schottky barriers
  • cadmium telluride
  • hole transport
  • photovoltaics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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