## Abstract

Topology optimization, a technique to determine where material should be placed within a predefined volume in order to minimize a physical objective, is used across a wide range of scientific fields and applications. A general application for topology optimization is inverse magnetostatics; a desired magnetic field is prescribed, and a distribution of steady currents is computed to produce that target field. In the present work, electromagnetic coils are designed by magnetostatic topology optimization, using volume elements (voxels) of electric current, constrained so the current is divergence-free. Compared to standard electromagnet shape optimization, our method has the advantage that the nonlinearity in the Biot–Savart law with respect to position is avoided, enabling convex cost functions and a useful reformulation of topology optimization as sparse regression. To demonstrate, we consider the application of designing electromagnetic coils for a class of plasma experiments known as stellarators. We produce topologically-exotic coils for several new stellarator designs and show that these solutions can be interpolated into a filamentary representation and then further optimized.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 116504 |

Journal | Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering |

Volume | 418 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jan 1 2024 |

## Keywords

- Coil optimization
- Inverse magnetostatics
- Nuclear fusion
- Sparse regression
- Stellarators
- Topology optimization

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Computational Mechanics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- General Physics and Astronomy
- Computer Science Applications