Total and trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant anthropometric outcomes at birth and 6 months in low-income Hispanic families

Andrea L. Deierlein, Mary Jo Messito, Michelle Katzow, Lauren Thomas Berube, Cara D. Dolin, Rachel S. Gross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To describe total and trimester-specific gestational weight gain (GWG) among low-income Hispanic women and determine whether these GWG exposures are associated with infant anthropometric outcomes at birth and 6 months. Study Design: Data were from 448 mother-infant pairs enrolled in the Starting Early child obesity prevention trial. Prenatal weights were used to calculate total GWG and 2nd and 3rd trimester GWG rates (kg/week) and categorized as inadequate, adequate, and excessive according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Multivariable linear and modified Poisson regressions estimated associations of infant anthropometric outcomes (birthweight, small-for-gestational age [SGA], large-for-gestational age [LGA], rapid weight gain, and weight-for-age, length-for-age, and weight-for-length z-scores at 6 months) with GWG categories. Results: For total GWG, 39% and 27% of women had inadequate and excessive GWG, respectively. 57% and 46% had excessive GWG rates in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, respectively, with 29% having excessive rates in both trimesters. Inadequate total GWG was associated with lower infant weight and length outcomes (ß range for z-scores = −0.21 to −0.46, p < 0.05) and lower risk of LGA (adjusted Relative Risk, aRR = 0.38; 95% confidence intervals, CI: 0.16, 0.95) and rapid weight gain (aRR = 0.72; 95%CI: 0.51, 1.00). GWG rates above recommendations in the 2nd trimester or 2nd/3rd trimesters were associated with greater weight outcomes at birth and 6 months (ß range for z-scores = 0.24 to 0.35, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Counseling women about health behaviors and closely monitoring GWG beginning in early pregnancy is necessary, particularly among populations at high-risk of obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere12589
JournalPediatric Obesity
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020


  • Hispanic Americans
  • anthropometry
  • infant
  • pediatric obesity
  • pregnancy
  • weight gain
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Second
  • Poverty
  • Gestational Weight Gain
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Third
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Pregnancy
  • Birth Weight
  • Adult
  • Body Height
  • Female
  • Weight Gain
  • Infant, Newborn

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health Policy
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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