Towards a World Wide Web without digital inequality

Moumena Chaqfeh, Rohail Asim, Bedoor AlShebli, Muhammad Fareed Zaffar, Talal Rahwan, Yasir Zaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The World Wide Web (WWW) empowers people in developing regions by eradicating illiteracy, supporting women, and generating economic opportunities. However, their reliance on limited bandwidth and low-end phones leaves them with a poorer browsing experience compared to privileged users across the digital divide. To evaluate the extent of this phenomenon, we sent participants to 56 cities to measure the cost of mobile data and the average page load time. We found the cost to be orders of magnitude greater, and the average page load time to be four times slower, in some locations compared to others. Analyzing how popular webpages have changed over the past years suggests that they are increasingly designed with high processing power in mind, effectively leaving the less fortunate users behind. Addressing this digital inequality through new infrastructure takes years to complete and billions of dollars to finance. A more practical solution is to make the webpages more accessible by reducing their size and optimizing their load time. To this end, we developed a solution called Lite-Web and evaluated it in the Gilgit-Baltistan province of Pakistan, demonstrating that it transforms the browsing experience of a Pakistani villager using a low-end phone to almost that of a Dubai resident using a flagship phone. A user study in two high schools in Pakistan confirms that the performance gains come at no expense to the pages’ look and functionality. These findings suggest that deploying Lite-Web at scale would constitute a major step toward a WWW without digital inequality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2212649120
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 17 2023


  • World Wide Web
  • digital divide
  • low-end mobile phone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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