Towards phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography in smart laser osteotomy: temperature feedback

Arsham Hamidi, Yakub A. Bayhaqi, Ferda Canbaz, Alexander A. Navarini, Philippe C. Cattin, Azhar Zam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Thermal effects during bone surgery pose a common challenge, whether using mechanical tools or lasers. An irrigation system is a standard solution to cool the tissue and reduce collateral thermal damage. In bone surgery using Er:YAG laser, insufficient irrigation raises the risk of thermal damage, while excessive water lowers ablation efficiency. This study investigated the potential of optical coherence tomography to provide feedback by relating the temperature rise with the photo-thermal expansion of the tissue. A phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography system (central wavelength of λ=1.288 μm, a bandwidth of 60.9 nm and a sweep rate of 104.17 kHz) was integrated with an Er:YAG laser using a custom-made dichromatic mirror. Phase calibration was performed by monitoring the temperature changes (thermal camera) and corresponding cumulative phase changes using the phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography system during laser ablation. In this experiment, we used an Er:YAG laser with 230 mJ per pulse at 10 Hz for ablation. Calibration coefficients were determined by fitting the temperature values to phase later and used to predict the temperature rise for subsequent laser ablations. Following the phase calibration step, we used the acquired values to predict the temperature rise of three different laser-induced cuts with the same parameters of the ablative laser. The average root-mean-square error for the three experiments was measured to be around 4 °C. In addition to single-point prediction, we evaluated this method’s performance to predict the tissue’s two-dimensional temperature rise during laser osteotomy. The findings suggest that the proposed principle could be used in the future to provide temperature feedback for minimally invasive laser osteotomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number222
JournalLasers in Medical Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Laser ablation
  • Laser osteotomy
  • Optical coherence tomography
  • Phase-sensitive OCT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Dermatology


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