Although toxoplasmosis is the most common infectious cause of posterior intraocular inflammation, it is rarely described in association with scleritis. The authors present five cases of toxoplasmosis with scleritis. Two of the five cases were diagnosed clinically and serologically as having toxoplasmosis. Their retinochoroiditis and scleritis responded well to medical therapy. Retinochoroiditis and scleritis that was refractory to treatment developed in the other three patients, two of whom had been receiving immunosuppressive therapy for systemic diseases. Their therapeutic regimens did not include treatment for toxoplasmosis. All three eyes became blind and were enucleated. Results of pathologic examination of all three enucleated eyes showed Toxoplasma gondii in the retina. There was severe inflammation of the retina, choroid, and sclera. Toxoplasmosis should be considered in the clinical differential diagnosis of scleritis associated with retinochoroiditis, particularly in immunosuppressed patients.
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