Translation and validation in Brazilian Portuguese of the reactions to homosexuality scale

Thiago S. Torres, Paula M. Luz, Daniel R.B. Bezerra, Celline C. Almeida-Brasil, Luana M.S. Marins, Valdilea G. Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Daphna Harel, Brett D. Thombs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Internalized homonegativity results from the acceptance of negative attitudes about one’s same-sex orientation, which has negative consequences for the health of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM). We translated the 7-item Reactions to Homosexuality Scale (RHS) to Brazilian Portuguese and assessed its factor structure, validity and reliability. The first step included the translation, back-translation, evaluation, peer review, and pre-testing of the scale. Then, we piloted the scale in two convenience samples of adult Brazilians recruited online during October 2019 and February to March 2020 through advertisements on Grindr and Hornet, respectively. The largest sample was randomly split into two groups for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) then confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Criterion and construct validity were assessed via correlations between scale scores and study variables. A total of 5573 GBM (sample 1: 218; sample 2: 5355) completed the RHS. EFA (N = 2652) yielded two eigenvalues greater than one (Factor 1: 3.5 and Factor 2: 1.1). A one-factor solution provided the most interpretable model based on examination of scree plot and item factor loadings (χ2(14) = 1373.1, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.89; TLI = 0.84; RMSEA = 0.19; SRMS = 0.09). Though one-factor CFA showed moderate fit, freeing errors terms to covary, based on item content and interpretation, significantly improved model fit (χ2(12) = 309.1, p < .001; CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.09; SRMR = 0.02). As hypothesized, men who did not self-identify as gay (mean score 17.9 compared to those self-identifying as gay: 11.8) and men who reported no sex with men in the past 6 months (mean score 12.6 compared to those who reported sex with men: 10.6) scored higher reflecting higher internalized homonegativity. The RHS was effectively translated and validated in Brazilian Portuguese and can be used to evaluate the role of internalized homonegativity on GBM’s health, as well as its impact on the uptake of HIV prevention technologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20-36
Number of pages17
JournalPsychology, Health and Medicine
Issue numbersup1
StatePublished - 2021


  • Brazil
  • CFA
  • Internalized homonegativity
  • gay, bisexual and other man who have sex with man (GBM)
  • homophobia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Translation and validation in Brazilian Portuguese of the reactions to homosexuality scale'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this