Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and memory are dependent on new protein synthesis. Recent advances obtained from genetic, physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical studies provide strong evidence that translational control plays a key role in regulating long-term changes in neural circuits and thus long-term modifications in behavior. Translational control is important for regulating both general protein synthesis and synthesis of specific proteins in response to neuronal activity. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent progress in the field and highlight the prospects for better understanding of long-lasting changes in synaptic strength, learning, and memory and implications for neurological diseases.
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