Transportation and Health: The Impact of Commuting

R. E. Wener, G. W. Evans

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Much of the world's working population, in developed countries and increasingly in developing economies, commute to and from work. Because trip lengths and road congestion are increasing, and since many people engage in this travel regularly and over many years, any negative health effects of these trips can have important consequences. This article will review the nature of commuting and also discuss the varieties of possible health-related consequences, including direct effects, such as toxic exposure and accidents, and indirect effects, such as those resulting from environmental impacts, responses to stress, and the effects of inactivity. It will note the impact of these phenomena and compare impacts across various travel modes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Environmental Health
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9780444522726
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011


  • Climate change
  • Commuting
  • Congestion
  • Emissions
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Particulate matter
  • Physical activity
  • Pollution
  • Psychological distress
  • Sprawl
  • Stress hormones
  • Volatile organic compounds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science


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