Trends in preparing cyber-physical systems engineers

Thi Bich Lieu Tran, Martin Törngren, Huu Duc Nguyen, Radoslav Paulen, Nancy Webster Gleason, Trong Hai Duong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Demand for prepared Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) engineers is growing in the Industry 4.0 economy and universities should respond accordingly. This article identifies trends in preparing the CPSs workforce of the future by reviewing educational curricula and research on CPSs of universities around the world. The research finds three main approaches being deployed: 1) Offering universal CPSs foundational training for different industrial fields; 2) becoming more focus on CPSs training at the doctoral level and for a specific industrial field; and 3) CPSs training as an embedded or introduction course in engineering curricula. The research identifies a need for ‘educational renewal’ in the era of CPSs training. Reorganizing university structures for collaboration and innovation in CPSs training and research is essential. Preparing interdisciplinary CPSs doctoral-level graduates and engineers for specific industrial fields should become a central focus. Equipping CPSs engineers with skills, especially creativity and entrepreneurial competencies, should be a priority.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-91
Number of pages27
JournalCyber-Physical Systems
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 3 2019


  • CPSs curriculum
  • CPSs for specific industries
  • Cyber physical systems (CPSs)
  • Fourth industrial revolution (4IR)
  • higher education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


Dive into the research topics of 'Trends in preparing cyber-physical systems engineers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this