Tutorial: Using Visual–Acoustic Biofeedback for Speech Sound Training

Elaine R. Hitchcock, Jonathan L. Preston, Laura C. Ochs, Michelle T. Swartz, Megan C. Leece, Tara McAllister

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This tutorial summarizes current practices using visual–acoustic biofeedback (VAB) treatment to improve speech outcomes for individuals with speech sound difficulties. Clinical strategies will focus on residual distortions of /ɹ/. Method: Summary evidence related to the characteristics of VAB and the populations that may benefit from this treatment are reviewed. Guidelines are provided for clinicians on how to use VAB with clients to identify and modify their productions to match an acoustic representation. The clinical application of a linear predictive coding spectrum is emphasized. Results: Successful use of VAB requires several key factors including clinician and client comprehension of the acoustic representation, appropriate acoustic target and template selection, as well as appropriate selection of articulatory strategies, practice schedules, and feedback models to scaffold acquisition of new speech sounds. Conclusion: Integrating a VAB component in clinical practice offers additional intervention options for individuals with speech sound difficulties and often facil-itates improved speech sound acquisition and generalization outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18-36
Number of pages19
JournalAmerican journal of speech-language pathology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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