Two-dimensional diamonds from sp 2-to-sp 3 phase transitions

Francesco Lavini, Martin Rejhon, Elisa Riedo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The ability to change material properties through phase engineering has long been sought, with the goal of ad hoc tunability of the physical and chemical properties of the transformed phases. The synthesis and study of graphene have made it possible to explore the mechanisms of 2D phase transformations, opening up paths towards the formation of 2D diamond and diamond thin films. This Review examines the state-of-the-art phase transformations in 2D graphitic systems and beyond. The theoretical models formulated to describe the sp2-to-sp3 transitions from graphene to 2D diamond and the experimental processes developed to induce the transition to 2D diamond are discussed, focusing on the transformations induced by chemical functionalization and pressure. The effects of different structural and environmental factors on the evolution of the phase transformations and on the properties of the transformed diamond phases are explored. Without comprehensively reviewing phase transitions in all 2D materials, we briefly mention hexagonal boron nitride, phosphorene, transition metal dichalcogenides and MXenes systems. Finally, the Review delves into the technologies and applications of phase transformations in 2D materials and the opportunities for this field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)814-832
Number of pages19
JournalNature Reviews Materials
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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