Understanding apartment end-use water consumption in two green residential multistory buildings

F. Jordán-Cuebas, U. Krogmann, C. J. Andrews, J. A. Senick, E. L. Hewitt, R. E. Wener, M. Sorensen Allacci, D. Plotnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the drivers of indoor water consumption in urban multistory residential buildings, to more accurately predict residential water demand, and to identify water saving opportunities. Water meters were installed at each end-use fixture in 15 apartments within two economically diverse green high-rise buildings. Infrared motion loggers recorded occupant presence. Interviews provided sociodemographic data and data about water consuming activities. The average apartment water consumption was 184 L/[capita (cap) · d] in Building #1 and 260 L/[capita (cap) · d] in Building #2. A principal component analysis determined that tenant presence in kitchen, kitchen faucet water consumption, cooking frequency, bathroom faucet water consumption, bathtub water consumption, percentage of tenants going to work/school, percentage of children, and percentage of seniors were major contributors to the variability in total per capita water consumption. A water end-use model taking these drivers into account demonstrated that preferences in bathtub and shower consumption exceeded the effects of dish washing and toilet leaks. When considered in relation to overall water consumption in the city, the tenant per capita water consumption in both buildings was similar.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number04018009
JournalJournal of Water Resources Planning and Management
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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