Different mutations in the amelogenin gene (AMELX) result in the markedly different enamel phenotypes that are collectively known as amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). We hypothesize that unique phenotypes result from specific genetic mutations. The purpose of this study was to characterize the enamel compositional and structural features associated with a specific AMELX mutation in three families with X-linked AI. We performed mutational analysis by amplifying AMELX exons and sequencing the products. Permanent and primary affected (N = 6) and normal (N = 3) teeth were collected and examined by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Enamel proteins were evaluated by immunolocalization of amelogenin and amino acid analysis. AI-affected individuals all shared a common AMELX point mutation (C to A change at codon 41). The dental phenotypic findings were remarkably consistent in all affected individuals. The AI enamel was opaque, with numerous prism defects or holes encompassing the entire prism width. Affected crystallites appeared more radiolucent and morphologically less uniform, compared with that of normal enamel. Immunogold labeling with anti-amelogenin antibodies localized amelogenin to the crystallites but not to the inter-crystalline spaces. No immunogold labeling was seen in normal enamel. There was an increased and amelogenin-like protein content in AI enamel (0.95%) compared with normal enamel (0.13%). We conclude that this codon 41 C to A missense point mutation, in a highly conserved region of the AMELX gene, results in a remarkably consistent phenotype.
- Amelogenesis imperfecta
ASJC Scopus subject areas