Using entanglement in quantum multi-prover interactive proofs

Julia Kempe, Hirotada Kobayashi, Keiji Matsumoto, Thomas Vidick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The central question in quantum multi-prover interactive proof systems is whether or not entanglement shared among provers affects the verification power of the proof system. We study for the first time positive aspects of prior entanglement and show how it can be used to parallelize any multi-prover quantum interactive proof system to a one-round system with perfect completeness, soundness bounded away from one by an inverse-polynomial in the input size, and one extra prover. Alternatively, we can also parallelize to a three-turn system with the same number of provers, where the verifier only broadcasts the outcome of a coin flip. This "public-coin" property is somewhat surprising, since in the classical case public-coin multi-prover interactive proofs are equivalent to single-prover ones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)273-307
Number of pages35
JournalComputational Complexity
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2009


  • Entanglement
  • Interactive proof systems
  • Multi-prover interactive proof systems
  • Quantum computing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Mathematics
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Computational Mathematics


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