Utilisation of shale oil by the extraction and retorting of oil shale

M. Z.A. Anabtawi, N. Hilal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Extraction of the bitumen fraction of oil shale was carried out using two different solvents, chloroform and toluene. Oil shale of 4.0 mm particle size from the El-Lajjun area in Jordan was used in this study. The solvents were recovered by distillation. The spent shale was retorted using a special retort and shale oil (Kerogen) was recovered. The quantity of the hydrocarbon was compared with that produced by using a Fischer Assay retort. When chloroform was used as solvent, it was found that the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.034 g/g of oil shale and the amount of kerogen obtained was 0.099 g/g of oil shale with a total amount of oil 0.133 g/g and with 86.4% of the solvent recovered. When toluene was used as solvent it was found that the amount of bitumen extracted was 0.026 g/g oil shale and the amount of kerogen obtained was 0.116 g/g oil shale with a total amount of oil 0.142 g/g and with 94.7% of the solvent recovered. The quantities of oil recovered using both solvents were higher than that recovered using the Fischer Assay retort where only 0.106 g/g oil shale were obtained.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-207
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Technology and Management
Volume4
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2004

Keywords

  • Extraction
  • Oil shale
  • Retorting
  • Shale oil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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