Vaccine hesitancy in American healthcare workers during the COVID-19 vaccine roll out: an integrative review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objective: The purpose of this integrative review is to examine the literature on vaccine hesitancy among American healthcare workers during the COVID-19 vaccine rollout. Methods: A review of quantitative literature on acceptance, intention, refusal, or hesitation to accept the COVID-19 vaccine was conducted, searching in PubMed, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Because of the immediacy of the topic, research letters were included in addition to articles. The 18 publications were appraised for quality using the Critical Appraisal Checklist for Cross-Sectional Studies by the Center for Evidence-Based Management. Results: Estimates of vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers were similar to the general population. The literature indicates demographic characteristics associated with vaccine hesitancy, including being younger, female, Black, Hispanic, or Latinx. However, examination of the demographic data also points to gaps in the understanding and implications of those characteristics. The newness or perceived rush of vaccine development and implementation were the most cited sources for hesitancy. Conclusion: The studies in this review give clear areas of need for translational research on dissemination and implementation relating to the correlational data, including in areas of comorbid, diasporic, and reproductive health concerns. However, with the gravity of the pandemic and quick arrival of the COVID-19 vaccine happening in the midst of an infodemic, adjunctive interventions could be warranted to combat hesitancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-104
Number of pages11
JournalPublic Health
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Healthcare workers
  • Vaccine acceptance
  • Vaccine hesitancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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