Five models of collectivism and individualism, which varied by ingroup and measurement specification were tested with confirmatory factor analyses. The sample consisted of 493 college students from South Korea and the United States, with U.S. students divided between Asian Americans and European Americans. Results indicated that collectivism and individualism are best represented by a 4-factor model with the latent variables Kin Collectivism (KC), Kin Individualism (KI), Nonkin Collectivism (NC), and Nonkin Individualism (NI). KC and KI were strongly inversely related, but NC and NI were only moderately so. Whereas KC and NC were moderately related within each of the 3 student groups, KI and NI were moderately related only among Koreans and Asian Americans, and not among European Americans. Thus, the meanings of collectivism and individualism vary with ingroup and culture. Measurement, methodological, and conceptual implications are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Sociology and Political Science