Voices from the Field: Ecological Factors that Promote Employment and Health Among Low-Income Older Adults with Implications for Direct Social Work Practice

Ernest Gonzales, Kathy Lee, Bob Harootyan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We employed cumulative dis/advantage and ecological theories to identify risk and protective factors at the individual, family, institutional, and societal levels that promote employment and health among low-income older adults. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 older adults who participated in a federally funded training and employment program for low-income individuals 55+ years of age. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Approximately 60% of participants had experienced a lifetime of disadvantages (e.g. low levels of formal education, poor physical and mental health, enduring poverty, physically demanding jobs). Surprisingly, 40% of respondents had higher levels of education, excellent or good health, consistent lifetime employment, and personal drive to obtain employment, but had experienced a major health, economic, or social shock that resulted in unemployment, poverty and at times, homelessness. Their life stories, as well as the extant literature, enabled us to understand the many risk and protective factors across the ecological framework associated with employment and improved health. A holistic, strengths-based approach, which utilizes the full scope of biopsychosocial and service assessments is required to bolster employment and health of low-income older adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-222
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Social Work Journal
Volume48
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020

Keywords

  • Cumulative dis/advantage
  • Ecological framework
  • Older workers
  • Risk and protective factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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