Watermark estimation through local pixel correlation

Matthew Holliman, Nasir Memon, Minerva M. Yeung

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Many invisible watermarking schemes can be modeled as the addition of a watermark signal to an image, yielding a watermarked variant perceptually similar to the original image. In this paper, we describe a method by which an attacker, given only an image watermarked with such a technique, can attempt to construct an approximation to the watermark. The technique estimates an embedded signal by taking advantage of the inter-pixel correlation typically found in natural images, thereby allowing for a method of both watermark removal and watermark forgery. Furthermore, the approach is computationally inexpensive, making it suitable for attacks on proposed video watermarking schemes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
PublisherSociety of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
Number of pages13
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999
EventProceedings of the 1999 Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents - San Jose, CA, USA
Duration: Jan 25 1999Jan 27 1999


OtherProceedings of the 1999 Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents
CitySan Jose, CA, USA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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