Wear behavior and microstructural characterization of translucent multilayer zirconia

Sonaj Vardhaman, Marcia Borba, Marina R. Kaizer, Do Kyung Kim, Yu Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To characterize the composition, microstructure and wear properties of a multilayer translucent zirconia relative to the conventional 3Y-TZP.

METHODS: Two types of ceramics were evaluated: a multilayer zirconia (MULTI, IPS e.max ZirCAD Multi, Ivoclar Vivadent) and a control 3Y-TZP (IPS e.max ZirCAD LT, Ivoclar Vivadent). Pre-sintered CAD-CAM blocks were cut, ground, sintered and polished to 1 μm finish. The phase fraction and grain size were measured using XRD and FE-SEM. For wear testing (n = 12), square-shaped specimens (16 × 16 × 1 mm) were adhesively bonded to a dentin analog. Sliding wear tests were performed using a spherical zirconia antagonist (r = 3.15 mm), with 30 N load at 1.5 Hz for 500,000 cycles in water. Optical and scanning electron microscopes and 3D laser scanner were used for quantitative wear analyses. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test (α = 0.05).

RESULTS: For MULTI, the enamel layer had the highest cubic content and the largest grain size, followed by the two transition layers, and the dentin layer. 3Y-TZP showed the smallest grain size and cubic content. A significant amount of wear was observed in both materials up to 50,000 cycles until it reached a plateau. MULTI showed higher volume loss and greater wear depth than 3Y-TZP (p < 0.01). The higher volume loss was associated with extensive lateral fracture, leading to material spalling from the surface of cubic-containing zirconias.

SIGNIFICANCE: The wear pattern in multi-layered zirconia was more severe than 3Y-TZP. Additionally, the different layers of the multi-layered zirconia had similar wear behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1407-1417
Number of pages11
JournalDental Materials
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • Ceramics
  • Occlusion
  • Prostheses
  • Sliding contact
  • Wear mechanisms
  • Wear parameters
  • Dental Porcelain
  • Zirconium
  • Humans
  • Surface Properties
  • Materials Testing
  • Yttrium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Materials Science
  • General Dentistry


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