In the ecological systems perspective, gender ideologies are part of the macrosystem that shapes human development. A growing literature indicates that youth accommodate and resist such ideologies, with adherence to masculinity norms being linked with negative adjustment. Most masculinity research focuses on boys’ adherence to masculinity, but girls are also pressured to uphold masculinity norms. Using mixed modeling, we examined girls’ adherence to masculinity and psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (peer support and conflict) well-being in the United States (N = 407; Mage= 12.28) and China (N = 356; Mage= 12.41). In both countries, adherence to masculinity was negatively associated with psychosocial well-being. Chinese girls reported greater masculinity adherence, but associations with psychosocial well-being were not moderated by nationality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cultural Studies
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Behavioral Neuroscience