What Are the Predictors of Craniomaxillofacial Injuries From Hoverboard Accidents?

Brendan W. Wu, Kevin C. Lee, Min Wei Hsiung, Vasiliki Karlis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: A hoverboard, or self-balancing scooter, is a battery-powered vehicle with 2 wheels connected by a longboard that requires handsfree operation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the emergency department visits for hoverboard-related craniomaxillofacial trauma and determine predictors of injuries and hospital admission. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 2015 to 2018. The database was searched using the codes for battery-powered vehicles and craniomaxillofacial body parts (ie, head, face, mouth, eyeball, ear). Entries with the term “hoverboard” in their narrative were included. The predictors were gender, age, body part, year, season, setting, and helmet wear. The outcomes were injury diagnoses (ie, dental injury, facial fracture, soft tissue injury, intracranial injury) and hospital admission. Associations between the predictors and outcomes were evaluated using χ2 and t tests. Results: The final sample included 440 patients, of whom 51% were male and 74% were pediatric (age, ≤18 years). Pediatric and male patients were both less likely to wear helmets (P <.01). The injuries had most commonly occurred in the winter (38%) and in a home setting (77%). Facial fractures were more likely in adults (P =.03) and in the summer (P =.04). The overall admission rate was 4.3%. The admission rates were greater for those with facial fractures (P =.02) and intracranial injuries (P =.03) but lower for those with soft tissue injuries (P <.01). Street injuries resulted in a greater admission rate compared with home injuries (P =.01). Conclusions: Craniomaxillofacial injuries from hoverboard accidents have resulted in emergency department visits and hospital admissions since the vehicle's introduction to the consumer market in 2015. Most cases occurred in the winter, which might reflect increased sales and novice riders during the holiday season. Injuries to adults, in the summer or outdoors, appear to be more severe. Intracranial injuries were the most frequent diagnosis; thus, helmet wear is recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2027-2031
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • Adult
  • Child
  • Craniocerebral Trauma
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Facial Injuries/epidemiology
  • Female
  • Head Protective Devices
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Skull Fractures/epidemiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery
  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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