Why specific design is not the mark of the adaptational

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review


Andrews et al.'s analysis suffers from a series of conceptual confusions they inherit from Gould's work. Their proposal that adaptations can be distinguished from exaptations essentially by specific design criteria fails because exaptations are often maintained and secondarily adapted by natural selection and therefore, over evolutionary time, can come to have similar levels of design specificity to adaptations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)532-533
Number of pages2
JournalBehavioral and Brain Sciences
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Physiology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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