Wideband millimeter-wave propagation measurements and channel models for future wireless communication system design

Theodore S. Rappaport, George R. MacCartney, Mathew K. Samimi, Shu Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The relatively unused millimeter-wave (mmWave) spectrum offers excellent opportunities to increase mobile capacity due to the enormous amount of available raw bandwidth. This paper presents experimental measurements and empirically-based propagation channel models for the 28, 38, 60, and 73 GHz mmWave bands, using a wideband sliding correlator channel sounder with steerable directional horn antennas at both the transmitter and receiver from 2011 to 2013. More than 15,000 power delay profiles were measured across the mmWave bands to yield directional and omnidirectional path loss models, temporal and spatial channel models, and outage probabilities. Models presented here offer side-by-side comparisons of propagation characteristics over a wide range of mmWave bands, and the results and models are useful for the research and standardization process of future mmWave systems. Directional and omnidirectional path loss models with respect to a 1 m close-in free space reference distance over a wide range of mmWave frequencies and scenarios using directional antennas in real-world environments are provided herein, and are shown to simplify mmWave path loss models, while allowing researchers to globally compare and standardize path loss parameters for emerging mmWave wireless networks. A new channel impulse response modeling framework, shown to agree with extensive mmWave measurements over several bands, is presented for use in link-layer simulations, using the observed fact that spatial lobes contain multipath energy that arrives at many different propagation time intervals. The results presented here may assist researchers in analyzing and simulating the performance of next-generation mmWave wireless networks that will rely on adaptive antennas and multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7109864
Pages (from-to)3029-3056
Number of pages28
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015


  • 28 GHz
  • 38 GHz
  • 5G
  • 60 GHz
  • 73 GHz
  • MIMO
  • Millimeter-wave
  • RMS delay spread
  • SSCM
  • channel sounder
  • multipath
  • path loss
  • propagation measurements
  • small cell
  • statistical spatial channel models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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