XD-GRASP: Golden-angle radial MRI with reconstruction of extra motion-state dimensions using compressed sensing

Li Feng, Leon Axel, Hersh Chandarana, Kai Tobias Block, Daniel K. Sodickson, Ricardo Otazo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose To develop a novel framework for free-breathing MRI called XD-GRASP, which sorts dynamic data into extra motion-state dimensions using the self-navigation properties of radial imaging and reconstructs the multidimensional dataset using compressed sensing. Methods Radial k-space data are continuously acquired using the golden-angle sampling scheme and sorted into multiple motion-states based on respiratory and/or cardiac motion signals derived directly from the data. The resulting undersampled multidimensional dataset is reconstructed using a compressed sensing approach that exploits sparsity along the new dynamic dimensions. The performance of XD-GRASP is demonstrated for free-breathing three-dimensional (3D) abdominal imaging, two-dimensional (2D) cardiac cine imaging and 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI of the liver, comparing against reconstructions without motion sorting in both healthy volunteers and patients. Results XD-GRASP separates respiratory motion from cardiac motion in cardiac imaging, and respiratory motion from contrast enhancement in liver DCE-MRI, which improves image quality and reduces motion-blurring artifacts. Conclusion XD-GRASP represents a new use of sparsity for motion compensation and a novel way to handle motions in the context of a continuous acquisition paradigm. Instead of removing or correcting motion, extra motion-state dimensions are reconstructed, which improves image quality and also offers new physiological information of potential clinical value.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)775-788
Number of pages14
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016


  • compressed sensing
  • free-breathing
  • golden-angle
  • motion compensation
  • radial sampling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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